Namaste, I am the soul of king Bharath after whom Bharath (India) Varsha is named. I have many stories to tell you about your long and proud history over the centuries. We are trying to reach you through this article Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Biography.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj biography
Name: Shivaji Bhonsle
Date of Birth: February 19, 1630
Birthplace: Shivneri Fort, Pune District, Maharashtra
Father: Shahji Bhonsle
Spouse: Saibai, Soyarabai, Putlabai, Sakwarbai, Lakshmibai, Kashibai
Children: Sambhaji, Rajaram, Sakhubai Nimbalkar, Ranubai Jadhav,
Ambikabai Mahadik, Rajkumar Bai Shirke
Death: 3 April 1680
Ruler: Raigad Fort, Maharashtra
Successor: Sambhaji Bhonsle
History of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj (In 1627 AD)
The year is 1627 AD and almost all of Bharat is under Islamic Occupation.
- In the Nort – There are the Mughals under Shah Jahan
- Bijapur – There is sultan Mohammed Adil Shah,
- In Golconda – Sultan Abdullah Qutub Shah.
The Deccan Sultans always preferred to have Muslim Officers in the army. But Portuguese controlled Ports and Mughals Controlled the land routes.
it was not possible to get Muslim officers from North Africa or Central Asia. So the sultans of Deccans were forced to appoint Hindu officers.
Shivaji’s father history
One Such Adil Shahi Military commander was a Maratha named ‘Shahaji Bhosale‘. Shahaji was a top General in the Adilshahi sultanate.
Shivaji Maharaj born date
In 1630 AD, In the fort of Shivneri near Jinnar in present-day Maharastra, a son was born to Shahaji and Jijabai called Shivay (Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj). The son named after the local deity Shivay would grow up to be Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj.
Shivaji’s father was always away in his childhood so his two role models growing up were mother Jijabai and guru Dadoji Kondav. Dadoji Kondev taught him warfare and administration while Jijabai taught him Hindu religious scriptures.
Dadoji Kondev death date
When Dadoji Kondev died in 1647 AD, He thought that Shivaji Will be a good Adilshahi General like his father but destiny had other plans.
In India of 1646 AD for a Hindu ruler to establish an independent kingdom there had to 3 main conditions fulfilled.
- Area needed to be far away from imperial power centers
- Agriculturally unimportant
- Dense forest cover for Guerilla warfare.
Destiny fulfilled these conditions around 1646 AD when Shivaji formed a group of staunch supporters from local peasants called ‘Malvlis’.
Maharaj Shivaji starting their Life for Empire-building
Shivaji had a good idea about the importance of forts in empire-building.
Therefore the 15-year-old Shivaji took control of the Torna fort, Chakan Fort, Kondana Forts by bribing the Adilshahi Commanders.
Thana forts, Kalyan forts, and Bhiwandi forts under Mullah Ahmed were seized by Shivaji under Abaji Sondev.
These events ruffled the Adil Shahi sultanate. To stop Shivaji they arrested his father. That’s is why Shivaji did not attack Adilshah directly for the next seven years.
However, he was getting ‘Deshmukhs‘ and other influential people’s support and crushing rivals hook or by crook. Slowly he builds a huge army commanded by Netaji Plakar, infantry by Yeshaji Kank, and had 40 forts under his dominion.
Some Shivaji’s Battles
Battle of Pratapgad (1659)
To Nip this in the bud, in 1659 AD Badi Sahiba of Bijapur sent Afzal Khan, an Afghan general with an army of 10,000 soldiers to destroy Shivaji. Afzal was known for his cruelty and brutal strength. To Make Shivaji fight in the open, he demolishes Hindu temples and killed many civilians. But Shivaji employed guerilla tactics and hid in Pratapgad fort covered by dense jungle.
Finally, Afzal Khan called Shivaji to meet him personally for a truce with a plan to kill him. When they met, Khan in the pretext of hugging Shivaji tried to suffocate Shivaji with an iron grip. But wily Shivaji had hidden tiger claws and a danger. He tore apart Khan’s stomach and killed the man who was almost twice his size.
In the ensuing Battle of Pratapgarh, the Shivaji forces decisively defeated the Bijapur Sultanate’s forces shocked by the defeat of the powerful Afzal Khan. Bijapur’s Abyyssinian general Rustam Zaman was sent next.
On 28th December 1659 AD, Shivaji led a full-frontal attack at the center of the enemy forces while two other portions of his cavalry. Rustam Zaman fled the battlefield in disgrace.
Battle of Pavan khind (1660)
In 1660 AD. Adilshah sent his general Siddi Jauhar to attack Shivaji’s southern border. Chhatrapati Shivaji at Panhala Fort, Siddi Jauhar’s army besieged Panhala cutting off supply routes to the fort.
Shivaji tricked Siddi Jauhar into meeting him and convinced Adil Shah that Siddi Jauhar was a traitor. While they were internally, he escaped with about 5 thousand soldiers one night from Panhala fort. Baji Prabhu Deshpande held rear guard with just 700 men and fought bravely to death while Shivaji reached Vishalgarh safely.
“Baji Prabhu Deshpande is known as one of the greatest Maratha warriors to this day”
Battle of Poona (1663)
After this Badu begum of Bijapur requested Aurangzeb to help her. He sent his maternal uncle Shaista Khan, with 150,000 strong armies. Shaista Khan with a heavily armed Mughal army seized Pune and established his residence at Shivaji’s palace od, Lal Mahal. Shivaji and troops of soom 400 followers infiltrated Pune, using a wedding procession as cover. In the night they launched a most audacious attack directly on Shaista Khan. Khan saved himself from Shivaji’s sword
by jumping out of the window but lost three fingers.
Battle of Surat (1664)
To add insult to injury in 1664 AD Shivaji ransacked the city of Surat, a wealthy Mughal trading center. Aurangzeb was enraged and sent the 60 year old Rajput veteran Mirza Raja Jai Singh, with a 150,000 strong army.
Jai Singh won and Shivaji had to give up 23 of his forts and pay compensation of 400,000 hunas to the Mughals. He also had to go to Agra in 1666 with his 9 year old son.
The plan was to contain Shivaji by giving him a place in the prestigious Mughal court. Aurangzeb made the mistake of humiliating Shivaji and placing him under house arrest. Shivaji feigned severe illness and requested to send daily shipments of sweets and gifts to saints and fakirs in Agra for his health.
Shivaji’s Greatest Battle
While that was going on, Shivaji disguised as a laborer carry a sweet basket escaped on with Sambhaji. He took a route passing by Mathura, Kashi, Gaya, and Puri and into the territory of Golconda and Bipaur before reaching Raigad.
By 1670 AD, Shivaji launched a big offensive and in four months recovered a major portion of the territories surrendered to the Mughals.
From 1671 to 1674, Aurangzeb tried everything in his power using his Generals Daud Khan and Mahabal Khan to subdue Shivaji but failed terribly.
Additionally, Ali Adil Shah died in 1662 and Bijapur fell into disarray.
Shivaji Maharaj Coronation Ceremony (6 June 1674)
Finally on 6 June 1674, Shivaji was crowned king of the Marathas in a lavish Hindu ceremony at Raigad, by Gaga Bhatt.
Tilak, Janaiva and Vedic chanting, customs that had not been followed for centuries were revived.
Shivaji’s administration was largely influenced by Deccan administrative practices. He appointed eight ministers called ‘Astapradhan’ who assisted him in administrative matters. He had other positions under his rule;
1. Peshwa: The most important minister who looked after finance and general administration.
2. Senapati: He was one of the Maratha chiefs. This was a very respectable post.
3. Majumdar: They used to be accountants.
4. Surnavis or chitnis: Used to assist the king with his correspondence.
5. Dabir: Was the administrator of ceremonies and used to help the king in dealing with foreign affairs.
6. Judge and Panditrao: Was in charge of justice and religious grants.
Qualities of Maharaj Shivaji Life
- It was not just his military achievements that made him great.
- Shivaji was the ablest administrator.
- He never discriminated against any religions and a lot his generals were Muslims including his personal bodyguards.
- Shivaji never disrespected women or used them as a war strategy.
- He pioneered guerilla warfare against and had a strategic mind to build a navy and networks of forts.
- Shivaji started with 4 forts and 2000 men and by the time he died, he commanded an army of 100,000 people and had 300 forts.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Death
On 5 March 1680, Shivaji fell ill with fever and dysentery and died on 3 April 1680 at the relatively young age of 52.
Aurangzeb on Shivaji death
Aurangzeb thought that the Maratha kingdom would be over after Shivaji’s death but did not happen.
It was continued first by his son Sambhaiji and later by Chhatrapati Rajaram
(Aurangzeb Death date) March 3, 1707, Ahmednagar
Aurangzeb was drawn into a 25-year war with the Marathas and was completely ruined by the time he died.
Aurangzeb Last words on Shivaji death –
- “My years have gone by profitless. God has been in my heart, yet my darkened eyes have not recognized His light… There is no hope for me in the future. The army is confounded, and without heart or help, even as I am”.
According to this Chhatrapati Shivaji biography, The spark that Shivaji had lit would end up lighting the bright fire that became the Maratha Empire whose borders went from Karnataka to Attock.
Men Like Shivaji never die. They live forever in the hearts of the people they inspire.
Ans: Chhatrapati Shivaji was born in 19 February, 1630 Shivneri Fort, Pune District, (present-day Maharashtra, India)
Ans: Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj died on April 3, 1680. the reason behind the Shivaji Maharaj death due to high fever for three weeks, when he was 50 years of age.
Ans: The terminus was built over 10 years, terminus was designed by British born architectural engineer Frederick William Stevens.
Ans: Shivaji Maharaj had a total of 4 wifes. these are the names : Soyarabai (m. 1660–1680), Sakvarbai (m. 1656–1680), Putalabai (m. 1653–1680), Sai Bhonsale (m. 1640–1659).
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